Facial nerve face anatomy
Otol Neurotol ; It arises from the brain stem and extends posteriorly to the abducens nerve and anteriorly to the vestibulocochlear nerve. The BN coursed superior to the duct in the remaining two specimens. Following dissection and identification of the nerve being evaluated, its course can be documented by carefully exposing and digitising it in short segments. Introduction Facial nerve injury and subsequent paralysis of facial musculature following surgery involving the face, head and neck is one of the most feared complications by both surgeons and patients. Results A total of articles were returned of which 17 met our criteria. In the internal acoustic meatus……………….
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Anatomic landmarks for localisation of the branches of the facial nerve
Facial nerve | anatomy | rylanddavies.info
Activities were recorded on the ipsilateral frontalis muscle. Point at which BN crossed parotid duct localised 2. These branches also supply the small muscles of the nose. The FTN was observed to be a mean distance of 2. The superficial branches run beneath the skin and above the superficial muscles of the face, which they supply: some are distributed to the Procerus, joining at the medial angle of the orbit with the infratrochlear and nasociliary branches of the ophthalmic.
While Saylam et al [ 20 ]. These branches also supply the small muscles of the nose. In our laboratory, we have employed new techniques for evaluating surface landmarks in three dimensions [ 18 , 28 , 36 , 37 ]. These investigations are useful also to exclude pathological changes in the cerebellopontine angle such as tumors or brain stem lesions. As it ascends between the external acoustic meatus and mastoid process it divides into auricular and occipital branches. It arises from the brain stem and extends posteriorly to the abducens nerve and anteriorly to the vestibulocochlear nerve. Results Based on criteria for inclusion, 17 studies were judged as suitable for review.